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Nios® II is an softcore 32-bit processor developed by Altera to be implemented over all Altera (INTEL) FPGA and SoC families. 

Some NIOS-II features:

  • No license required.
  • Use fewer than 700 logic elements.
  • 6-stage pipeline runnning up to 30 DMIPS at 175 MHz in Nios II /e "economy" processor (Dhrystones 2.1 benchmark).
  • Deterministic and jitter free real-time performance.
  • Vector Interrupt Controller.
  • Custom instructions (ability to use FPGA hardware to accelerate a function).
  • Supported by industry-leading real-time operating systems (RTOS).
  • Nios II fast processor core can use a memory management unit (MMU) to run embedded Linux* operating system.

One way to optimize hardware resources use of Nios-II processor is implementing an real Time Operating System (RTOS) and NIOS-II is a excellent processor to run RTOS. Nios-II processor  is supported by a lot of RTOS and one of the most popular and robust is the FreeRTOS.

Some FreeRTOS features:

  • Free for use in commercial applications.
  • Scalable, simple and easy to use.
  • Simple - the core of the RTOS kernel is contained in only 3 .C files.
  • Scheduler can be configured for both preemptive or cooperative operation
  • Free tutorial books and training to educate engineers

In this article, we present all steps to implement the last FreeRTOS (v9.0) versión over the NIOS-II processor.  All step presented area developed in Quartus II 17.0 version and tested in DE0-nano development board.

Create Project using "DE0 Nano System Builder"

Open project using Quartus 17

From Quartus: File, Open Project..

Create NIOS-II instantiation using Qsys tool

  • From Quartus: Tools, Qsys..
  • Save as niosII.qsys
  • From IP catalog, include this components and configure.
IP component Name of component in project Detailed Configuration
clock_source clock_50
altera_nios2_gen2 cpu

 

altera_avalon_sysid_qsys sys_id
altera_avalon_new_sdram_controller sdram  
altera_avalon_epcs_flash_controller epcs  
altpll sys_pll

 

clock_source sys_clk  
altera_avalon_timer sys_clk_timer  
clock_source ram_clk  
altera_avalon_jtag_uart jtag  
altera_up_avalon_parallel_port LED_Pio  
altera_up_avalon_parallel_port Button_Pio  
altera_up_avalon_parallel_port Switch_Pio  
altera_avalon_uart uart  
altera_up_avalon_parallel_port IO_Pio  
  • Interconnect all components included in project in the next way.

 

Generate HDL of NIOS-II instantiation.

  • From Qsys: Generate, Generate HDL...

 

 Connect NIOS-II HDL with FPGA hardware pins.

  • write follow code in Quartus project, verilog file.
 niosII u0 (
.clk_clk (CLOCK_50), // clk.clk
.epcs_dclk (EPCS_DCLK), // epcs.dclk
.epcs_sce (EPCS_NCSO), // .sce
.epcs_sdo (EPCS_ASDO), // .sdo
.epcs_data0 (EPCS_DATA0), // .data0
.port_led_export (LED), // port_led.export
.port_key_export (KEY), // port_key.export
.port_sw_export (SW), // port_sw.export
.port_gpio_0_export (GPIO_0[31:0]), // port_gpio_0.export
.ram_clk_clk (DRAM_CLK), // ram_clk.clk
.reset_reset_n (1'b1), // reset.reset_n 
.uart_rxd (GPIO_0[32]), // uart.rxd
.uart_txd (GPIO_0[33]), // .txd
.sdram_addr (DRAM_ADDR), // sdram.addr
.sdram_ba (DRAM_BA), // .ba
.sdram_cas_n (DRAM_CAS_N), // .cas_n
.sdram_cke (DRAM_CKE), // .cke
.sdram_cs_n (DRAM_CS_N), // .cs_n
.sdram_dq (DRAM_DQ), // .dq
.sdram_dqm (DRAM_DQM), // .dqm
.sdram_ras_n (DRAM_RAS_N), // .ras_n
.sdram_we_n (DRAM_WE_N) // .we_n
); 

Include NIOS-II HDL to Quartus Project

  • From Quartus: Project, Add/Remove files in Project..
  • Add niosII.qsys file to project. 

 

Compile Quartus project

  • From Quartus: Processing, Start Compilation.

 Programming FPGA DE0-nano.

  • From Quartus: Tools, Programmer
  • click over Start Button

Create C/C++ project from Eclipse IDE

  • From Quartus: Tools, Nios II Sofware Build Tool for Eclipse.
  • Select a workspace
  • From Eclipse: File, New, Nios II Application and BSP from Template

  • Create NIOS II application from template
    • Nios II SOPC: Search for niosII. sopcinfo in to project folder
    • Project Name: Whatever you want
    • Project Template: Hello World
    • Finish

 Import FreeRTOS to Eclipse Project

  • Include FreeRTOS folders to compile path in properties of Eclipse Nios Project.

 

Edit hello_wolrd.c to create task and run FreeRTOS.

In this example, in hello_wolrd.c are created two task. This is the "hello_world.c" code. Copy and paste in your own eclipse project.

/*
 *
 * [File Name]     hello_world.c
 * [Platform]      DE0-nano
 * [Project]       NiosII & FreeRTOS
 * [Version]       1.00
 * [Author]        ea.rincon11 - ErnestoARC
 * [Date]          24/07/2017
 * [Language]      'C'
 * [History]       1.20 - Edited from original file included in FreeRTOS V9.0.0 Nios Example
 */
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------
// Standard C/C++ Includes
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------
#include <stddef.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------
// Scheduler Includes
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------
#include "FreeRTOS.h"
#include "task.h"
#include "queue.h"
#include "partest.h"
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------
// Constants
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------
/* The rate at which the Print out message controlled by the 'Task1' */
#define mainTASK1_PERIOD	( 500 )
/* The rate at which the Print out message controlled by the 'Task2' */
#define mainTASK2_PERIOD	( 1000 )
 
/* Priority definitions for the tasks in the demo application. */
#define mainTASK1_PRIORITY		( tskIDLE_PRIORITY + 1 )
/* Priority definitions for the tasks in the demo application. */
#define mainTASK2_PRIORITY		( tskIDLE_PRIORITY + 2 )
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------
// Function Prototypes
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------
static void prvPrintTask1( void *pvParameters );
static void prvPrintTask2( void *pvParameters );
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------
// Main Function
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------
int main()
{
	/* Configure any hardware required for this demo. */
	vParTestInitialise();
 
	printf("Hello from Nios II!\n");
 
	/* prvPrintTask1 uses sprintf so requires more stack. */
	xTaskCreate( prvPrintTask1, "Task1", configMINIMAL_STACK_SIZE, NULL, mainTASK1_PRIORITY, NULL );
	/* prvPrintTask2 uses sprintf so requires more stack. */
	xTaskCreate( prvPrintTask2, "Task2", configMINIMAL_STACK_SIZE, NULL, mainTASK2_PRIORITY, NULL );
 
      /* Finally start the scheduler. */
	vTaskStartScheduler();
 
	/* Will only reach here if there is insufficient heap available to start
	the scheduler. */
	for( ;; );
 
  return 0;
}
/*-----------------------------------------------------------*/
static void prvPrintTask1( void *pvParameters )
{
	for( ;; )
	{
		/* Wait until it is time to run the tests again. */
		vTaskDelay( mainTASK1_PERIOD / portTICK_PERIOD_MS);
 
        /* Print out an message */
        printf( "NIOS II Task1\r\n" );
        /*Control LED 1 DE0-NANO*/
        vParTestToggleLED(1);
	}
}
/*-----------------------------------------------------------*/
static void prvPrintTask2( void *pvParameters )
{
	for( ;; )
	{
		/* Wait until it is time to run the tests again. */
		vTaskDelay( mainTASK2_PERIOD / portTICK_PERIOD_MS);
 
        /* Print out an message */
        printf( "NIOS II Task2\r\n" );
 
        /*Control LED 2 DE0-NANO*/
        vParTestToggleLED(2);
	}
}
/*-----------------------------------------------------------*/
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// EOF
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

 

Compile and Program FreeRTOS Project into FPGA with NiosII

  • From eclipse: Project Build All
  • From eclipse: Run, Debug Configurations...
  • Click DEBUG and RUN debugger

 

Download complete project.

If you don´t want follow this steps, then download the Quartus, Qsys and Eclipse project.

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